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Laos: Luang Prabang

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11th August 2014- Flight VN2905 from Hanoi, arriving at 19.50. Arrival at Luang Prabang
12th August- City Tour of Luang Prabang, visiting the Morning Market, and wats of Xieng Thong and Mai, touring the Royal Palace and Night Market.
13th August- Kuangsi Waterfall and Ban Long Lao Conservation area. A trek through the jungle, to Kuangsi Pools and Bear Rescue centre. The Royal ballet evening.
14th August- A day exploring Luang Prabang wats and cruise down the Mekong.
15th August- A drive from Luang Prabang to visit Khmu, Hmong and Akha villages, the market town of Phoukoun and Nong Tang Lake and arriving at Phonsavan.
16th August- We visited the Plain of Jars and the former capital, Muang Khoun
17th August- A flight to Vientiane, followed by a sunset stroll along the Mekong.
18th August- City tour of Vientiane to Wat Sisaket, the Royal Palace, Wat That Luang, Patouxi and Buddhaland.
19th August- flight to Saigon.

Luang Prabang 11th August

We arrived at Hanoi airport with plenty of time, more than we expected, as the traffic had been so good. As it was too early to check into our Lao Air flight we went upstairs with our guide to have a drink while waiting. The upstairs area was quiet and cool with plenty of cafes, so we ordered some iced coffee. Finally we decided it must be time so went back down- the desk was not open as the previous flight (to Vientiane) was still being boarded (by the same staff). Luckily after a short wait we could check in and go through. The flight was late, but the waiting was cool.
The plane, a twin prop ATR Turboprop 72 (French Italian made) took off in the light (just) and we touched down an hour later in Luang Prabang. The flight over northern Laos showed how little occupied the land was as we saw hardly any lights.
Luckily I’d pre-filled most of the visa documents and even remembered the passport sized photos so it was a quick process through the immigration. It had gone up to $35 each (but no exit payment, so worked out roughly the same and I’d already put all the visa money in a separate envelope). Three immigration desks later we were through- our luggage was there too so we checked it through and met our guide. I told him I was wearing a 100-elephant jumpsuit to celebrate Lan Xang (Land of a Million Elephants).
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The car, a massive Hyundai, whisked us along Phetsarat Road for 15 mins to our hotel, the Le Sen Boutique Hotel (113 Manorom Rd, Ban Mano, PO Box 234, Luang Prabang, Laos Tel: +856.71.261 668). A lovely reception area, thin outdoor pool and a room with a very smelly drain just outside. A lick of paint on the concrete walls would have been a nice touch too! Still, the room was huge, the shower warm, the wifi (when we got it working) was OK. The TV choices were, well, limited (Thai TV, state-sponsored Lao which even they didn’t watch, BBC World (yawn) and some american news)- lucky we don’t watch TV! We decided not to bother going out, but got room service instead (forgetting that the Lao staff weren’t allowed in the room at the same time as us). Nice meal, cuddle, sleep!

Luang P(h)rabang (ຫຼວງພຣະບາງ), is the former capital of Laos and a UNESCO World Heritage city. It is at the confluence of two rivers that almost surround it, beneath a temple-topped Mt Phousi. Luang Prabang is a patchwork of traditional Lao wooden houses and French colonial architecture. Luang Prabang rose to prominence as the capital of the first Lao kingdom (Lan Xang - land of the million elephants) from 1353. The city owes its present name to the Pha Bang, a Buddha image (now in the Royal Palace Museum) brought to the city by King Visoun in the early 1500s. At the end of the 16th century, Lan Xang kingdom became a weak independent city- state paying tribute to several surrounding kingdoms. The 1887 attack by the Chinese Haw led the Luang Prabang monarchy to accept the protection of the French. The city fell into decline in the late 20th century following the withdrawal of the French, and the 1975 revolution, which brought an end to the Luang Prabang monarchy. The reopening of Laos to tourism in 1989 resulted in a turnaround in the city's fortunes.
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Ancient History- In 2009 an ancient skull (+46,0000) found Tam Pa Ling cave (north Laos) is the oldest modern human in Southeast Asia. Archaeological evidence suggests an agricultural society existed in the area by the 4th millennium BC. Burial jars and sepulchres show a complex society in which bronze objects appeared c1500 BC, and iron tools c700 BC. During the 4th-8th century, communities along the Mekong River began to form into townships, or Muang.

Tai-Lao migration
Hoabinhian hunter-gatherers were the ancestors of the present-day upland minorities, known as Lao Thoeng (Upland Lao), speaking Austro-Asiatic languages; the largest group being the Khamu/Khmu/Kammu of north Laos. Southern Laos is the probable birthplace of the Khmer, spreading south to establish Funan. The earliest kingdom in southern Laos in Chinese texts was Chenla, 5th century. Its capital was close to Champasak. A little later the Mon people (also Austro-Asiatic) established kingdoms on the middle Mekong; Sri Gotapura (Sikhottabong in Lao), with its capital Tha Khaek and Chanthaburi near Viang Chan (Vientiane). Tai peoples migrated from south China in the 8th century, including the Tai-Lao of Laos and Tai-Shan of Burma.
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All spoke Tai languages, practised wet-rice cultivation along river valleys, and organised themselves into small principalities (meuang), presided over by an hereditary ruler (chao meuang=lord of the meuang). The Tai-Lao, or Lao for short, moved down the rivers of north Laos- the Nam Ou and Nam Khan until they arrived at the Mekong (Great River). They worshipped ngeuk, powerful snake deities believed to inhabit rivers. An early Lao legend, the Nithan (story of) Khun Borom is the creation myth of the Lao. It tells how two great gourds grew at Meuang Thaeng (Dien Bien Phu, Vietnam) from inside which sounds could be heard. Divine beings (khun) pierced one gourd with a hot poker, and out poured dark-skinned Lao Thoeng. The khun cut a knife hole in the other gourd, through which escaped the light-skinned Tai-Lao (Lao Loum, Lowland Lao). The gods sent Khun Borom to rule both groups. He had seven sons, whom he sent to found seven Tai kingdoms. The youngest son founded the kingdom of Xieng Khuang on the Plain of Jars, and the oldest, Khun Lo, went down the Nam Ou, seizing Meuang Sua from its Lao Thoeng ruler and renaming it Xiang Dong Xiang Thong (Luang Prabang).

Muang Sua (Luang Prabang) was conquered in 698 by a Tai prince, Khun Lo, who seized his opportunity when the king of Nanzhao was engaged elsewhere. Khun Lo had been awarded the town by his father, Khun Borom (Lao/ Shan creation legend). Khun Lo established a dynasty whose 15 rulers reigned over an independent Muang Sua for over a century. During the Chenla kingdom (south Laos/ north Cambodia) 6th- 8th centuries, Luang Prabang became known as Muang Sawa, the Lao rendering of ‘Java’. Possible this referred to Javanese sponsorship of Chenla. Late 8th century Nanzhao intervened frequently in the affairs of the principalities of the middle Mekong Valley, resulting in the re- occupation of Muang Sua in 709. Nanzhao prince-administrators replaced the Tai overlords. This occupation probably ended before the northward expansion of the Khmer Empire to Sipsong Panna under Indravarman I (877-889). The Khmer founded an outpost at Xayfong (Vientiane) and in 1070 Chanthaphanit, the local ruler of Xayfong, moved north to Muang Sua, threw out Nanzhao and took over. Chanthaphanit and his son had long reigns, during which the town became known by the Thai name Xieng Dong Xieng Thong. The dynasty seems to have lost to Khun Chuang, a ruler from the Khmu tribe, ruled 1128-69. Under Khun Chuang, a single family ruled a large territory and reinstituted the Siamese administrative system of the 7th century. Muang Sua next became the Kingdom of Sri Sattanak, a name connected with the legend of the naga said to have dug the Mekong. Theravada Buddhism was replaced by Mahayana Buddhism. Muang Sua experienced a brief period of Khmer control 1185-91 under Jayavarman VII. By 1180 the Sipsong Panna had regained their independence from the Khmers and 1238 an internal uprising in Sukhothai expelled their Khmer overlords. Yuan Mongols, who destroyed Nanzhao in 1253 made Yunnan part of their empire. They exercised a decisive political influence in the middle Mekong Valley. 1271 Panya Lang, founder of a new dynasty headed by rulers bearing the title panya (lord), began his rule over a fully sovereign Muang Sua. 1286 Panya Lang's son, Panya Khamphong (personal name Souvanna) was involved in a coup d'état instigated by the Mongols and exiled his father. On his father's death, 1316, Panya Khamphong assumed his throne. Ram Khamhaeng (1282-4), an early ruler of Sukhothai, eliminated Khmer and Cham power in central Laos and obtained the allegiance of Muang Sua as a vassal. 1286-97 Panya Khamphong's lieutenants, acting for Ram Khamhaeng, pacified vast territories. 1297-1301 Lao troops under Mongol command invaded Dai Viet but were repulsed. 1308 Panya Khamphong seized the ruler of Muang Phuan (Plain of Jars), and made this principality a vassal state of Muang Sua. Mongol overlordship was unpopular in Muang Sua and internal feuds among members of the new dynasty resulted in family upheavals. Panya Khamphong exiled his son Fa Phi Fa (aka Chao) and wanted to leave the throne to his younger grandson, Fa Ngieo. However Fa Ngieo was involved in a coup, so in 1330 he sent his two sons to a Buddhist monastery for safety and then to Angkor in 1335 under King Jayavarman IX Paramesvara, whose kingdom had acknowledged Mongol suzerainty in 1285. The younger brother, Fa Ngum (b1319), married the king's daughter, Keo Kang Ya. 1343 Khampong died and 1349 Ngum set out from Angkor with an army. For the Khmer provided a buffer between them and the growing Kingdoms of Sukhothai, Lanna and Ayutthaya. Fa Ngum’s request for help from Vientiane went unanswered, but Prince Nho of Xieng Khouang (Muang Phouan) offered assistance and vassalage to Fa Ngum in return for help with a succession dispute of his own and to secure Xieng Khouang from the Dai Viet. Fa Ngum agreed and moved his army to Xieng Khouang, Sam Neua and several smaller cities of the Dai Viet. Continuing his conquests Fa Ngum turned along the Red and Black River valleys (Lao people), then moved down Ou River to take Muang Sua. The King of Muang Sua, Fa Ngum’s uncle, committed suicide and his elder brother stepped down. Fa Ngum was crowned king of Lan Xang at Vientiane in 1354.
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Lan Xang Hom Khao

(Lao: ລ້ານຊ້າງ lâansâang - ລ້ານ million + ຊ້າງ elephant + under the White
Parasol) 1354-1707. For 350 years Lan Xang was one of the largest kingdoms in Southeast Asia. It was the precursor of Laos, and the basis for the national historic and cultural identity.
1. Fa Ngum 1353-1371 In 1353 Fa Ngum (supported by the Khmer?) was crowned, and renamed his Kingdom Lan Xang Hom Khao and Luang Prabang as Xiang Dong Xiang Thong (City of Gold). Fa Ngum secured the areas around the Mekong by taking the Sipsong Panna and King Phayu of Lanna was
curtailed by Fa Ngum. 1351 King Rama Tibodi, who was married to a daughter of the Khmer King Suphanburi, founded the city of Ayutthaya. 1356 Fa Ngum marched south to punish Vientiane for failing to support him, took Vientiane and marched south to assert Lao control over areas seized by Ayutthaya. Ayutthaya acknowledged Lan Xang’s control of the Khorat Plateau. King Rama Tibodi betrothed his daughter Nang Keo Lot Fa as a second wife to Fa Ngum.
2. King Samsenthai 1371-1416 Fa Ngum successfully led Lan Xang 1360s against the Kingdom of Sukhothai, but the court factions and war weary population deposed him in favour of his son Oun Huean. Fa Ngum became an exile in Muang Nan, where he died c1373-90. 1371 Oun Huean was crowned King Samsenthai (King of 300,000 Tai) a carefully chosen name for the Lao-Khmer prince, showing preference for the Lao-tai population over the Khmer court. Samsenthai fought back the Kingdom of Lanna in Chiang Saen 1390s. 1402 he received formal recognition for Lan Xang from the Ming Emperor. 1416, Samsenthai died and was succeeded by his song Lan Kham Daeng.
3. Lan Kham Daeng 1416-1428 The Viet Chronicles record that 1421 the Lam Sơn Uprising took place against the Ming, and they sought Lan Xang’s assistance. An army of 30,000 with 100 elephant cavalry was sent, but instead sided with the Chinese. The death of Lan Kham Daeng ushered in a period of uncertainty and regicide.
4-. Queen Maha Devi/ Nang Keo Phimpha 1428-1440 In this period 7 kings ruled Lan Xang, all assassinated by a Queen known by her title as Maha Devi. Possibly 1440-42 she ruled Lan Xang as sole queen, before being drowned in the Mekong 1442 as an offering to the naga. 1440 a Vientiane revolt was suppressed. 1448 Xieng Khouang/ Black River was annexed by the Dai Viet and skirmishes took place against the Kingdom of Lanna along the Nan River. An interregnum 1453-6 ended with the crowning of King Chakkaphat (1456-1479).
● 4a. Phommathat 1428/9, reigned 10 months, son of Lan Kham Deng. Beheaded by Nang Keo Phimpha, his paternal aunt, in her successful attempt to seize power. Succeeded by her son, Khamtum.
● 4b. Kham Teun 1429, son of Samsenthai and Nang Keo Phimpha, sister of king Samsenthai. Before he was king he was Governor of Pak Houy Luang, so Khamtum was referred to as King Pak Houy Luang. After only 5 months he was forced to abdicate. He was succeeded by Meunsai.
● Yukorn/ MeunSai 1429–30 reigned 8 months, son of Lan Kham Daeng. Governor of Muang Kabong before king. He ruled 6 months but Nang Keo Phimpha (de facto ruler) planned his removal. He committed suicide in Wat Xieng Thong instead.
4c. Khon Kham 1431/2, reigned 18 months, son of Samsenthai)
4d. Kham Tem Sa (1433, reigned 5 months, son of Sam Sen Thai) 4d. Lu Sai (1434, reigned 6 months, son of Sam Sen Thai)
4e. Khai Bua Ban 1435–38, grandson of Sam Sen Thai. At the time of his succession, governor of
Chiengkai. His reign ended after princess Nang Keo Phim Fa ordered his death
● Khong Keut/ Kham/Keul 1436–38, illegitimate son of Samsenthai and a palace slave. On his
accession 1436, he claimed to be his father’s reincarnation. His died from a fit 1438.
● Nang Keo Phimpha (1343–1438) was the sister of Samsenthai. After her nephew, Lan Kham Deng died, she seized control of Lan Xang and the next 4 kings were under her control. She sole reigned
for a few months 1438 at age of 95, before she was deposed and killed.
● Interregnum (1438–41, rule by Sena and members of Sangha)
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5. Chakkaphat 1438-79 He was Sai Tia Kaphut, Governor of Nongkai before his accession. In 1471 Lê Thánh Tông of the Dai Viet destroyed the Kingdom of Champa and Xieng Khouang revolted from Dai Viet. 1478 the Dai Viet prepared an invasion of Lan Xang, in retribution for the rebellion in Xieng Khouang and for supporting the Ming in 1421. At the same time a white elephant was captured and brought to King Chakkaphat. The elephant was a symbol of kingship in Southeast Asia, and the Vietnamese king, Lê Thánh Tông ‘requested’ the animal as a ‘gift’. The request was seen as an affront, and a box filled with dung was sent instead. A Viet force marched to subdue Xieng Khouang, and met a Lan Xang force led by the crown prince. The Dai Viet won and went north to Muang Sua. Chakkaphat and the court fled to Vientiane. The Dai Viet took the capital of Muang Sua/ Luang Prabang, and then divided- one branch continued west taking Sipsong Panna and threatening the Kingdom of Lanna; the other headed south to Vientiane. King Tilok (Kingdom of Lanna) destroyed the Dai Viet army. The forces around Vientiane rallied under King Chakkaphat’s younger son Prince Thaen Kham and destroyed the Dai Viet army, which fled to Xieng Khouang, which they destroyed before returning to Vietnam. Chakkphat abdicated in favour of his son Prince Thaen Kham, who was crowned as Suvanna Balang (Golden Chair) in 1479. 48885145618_ecf9b4fbf6_o.jpg
6. Suvanna Balang/ Theng Kham 1479-85 (son of Chakkaphat)
7. La Sen Thai 1485–95, 6th son of Chakkaphat, Laasaenthai Bouvanaat succeeded his older brother King Suvarna Banlang. He enjoyed peaceful relations with neighbours Annam and Ayudhya, spending much of his time contemplating religious matters, spreading Buddhism and building. Succeeded by his only Son Prince Sompou.
● ● ● ●
8. Som Phou (Samphou) (1496–1501, son of La Sen Thai. Succeeded on the death of his father King La Sen Thai Puvanart 1495 under the regency of his uncle, Prince Laksana Vijaya Kumara [Louxé Phe Sai], until he came of age and assumed sovereign powers, 1497. Deposed by his uncle Visoun in 1500.
9. King Visoun 1500-1520 Vixun (Visoun, Visunarat) (son of Chakkaphat) 1st Golden Age of Lan Xang. He was a major patron of the arts and classical literature. Theravada Buddhist monasteries became centres of learning. The Nithan Khun Borom (Story of Khun Borom) first appeared in written form, along with the Lao version of the Ramayana (Pra Lak Pra Lam). Lao court music was sponsored and the classical court orchestra took shape. King Visoun sponsored major temples/ wats throughout the country. He chose as an icon the Phra Bang (a standing image of Buddha), which had been brought by Fa Ngum’s Khmer wife Keo Kang Ya from Angkor. It is traditionally believed to have been forged in Ceylon, the centre of Theravada Buddhism. The Phra Bang had been kept in Vientiane partly due to the strength of traditional animist beliefs in Muang Sua. The Phra Bang image was so revered that the capital city was renamed in its honour from Muang Sua to Luang Prabang. King Visoun, his son Photisarath, his grandson Setthathirath, and his great grandson Nokeo Koumane provided Lan Xang with a succession of strong leaders.
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10. Photisarath 1520-50 was a great king of Lan Xang. He took Nang Yot Kham Tip from the Kingdom of Lanna as his queen as well as lesser queens from Ayutthaya, and Longvek. He was a devout Buddhist, and made it the state religion. 1532 peace ended when the rebuilt Xieng Khouang rebelled, which took Photisarath 2 years to suppress. 1539 Photisarath accepted a Thai noble seeking asylum from King Chairacha of Ayutthaya for a failed rebellion. This resulted in an invasion of Lan Xang, which was defeated at Sala Kham in 1540. 1545 Lan Xang dispatched reinforcements to support the Kingdom of Lanna against Chairacha of Ayutthaya, who was defeated and forced to retreat. In recognition for his assistance against Ayutthaya, and his strong family ties to Lanna (he was married to the only child of the King of Chiang Mai= Lanna), King Photisarath was offered the throne of Lanna for his son Prince Setthathirath, and 1547 Setthathirath was crowned King of Lanna in Chiang Mai. Setthathirath took possession of the Emerald Buddha as his personal palladium (later the palladium of Vientiane) and married the princesses Nang Thip and Nang Tonkham. 1548, Photisarath was approached by Burma with offers of an alliance against Ayutthaya. He neither accepted, nor rejected. 1550 he returned to Luang Prabang, but was killed in an accident while riding an elephant.
11. Setthathirath I 1550-71 (King of Lanna 1546-51) 1548 Setthathirath (as King of Lanna) took Chiang Saen as his capital. Chiang Mai (Chiang Saen was the old capital, replaced by Chiang Mai) nobles were powerful at court, and the threat from Burma and Ayutthaya were growing. On the death of his father, Setthathirath left Lanna with his wife as regent and was crowned as King of Lan Xang. The rival factions 1551 crowned Chao Mekuti as king of Lanna. 1553 Setthathirath sent an army to retake Lanna but was defeated. 1555 he retook Chiang Saen. 1556 King Bayinnaung of Burma invaded Lanna. Chao Mekuti surrendered Chiang Mai and was reinstated as a Burmese vassal. 1560 Setthathirath moved the capital of Lan Xang from Luang Prabang to Vientiane. A building programme included a massive formal palace- the Haw Phra Kaew to house Emerald Buddha, and renovations to That Luang. In Luang Prabang, Wat Xieng Thong was constructed. 1563, a treaty between Lan Xang and Ayutthaya was to be sealed by the betrothal of Setthathirath to Princess Thepkasattri of Ayutthaya. However, her father, King Chakkraphat tried to exchange her for Princess Kaeo Fa, which was rejected. In the midst of the disagreement, Burma invaded Ayutthaya and Chakkraphat sent Princess Thepkasattri to Lan Xang along with a dowry to buy back the alliance. She died en route. King Chakkraphat became a vassal of Burma. The Burmese deposed King Chao Mae Ku (Mekuti) of Lanna. King Setthathirath, realising Vientiane could not be held against Burma, ordered the city evacuated and organised guerrilla attacks, forcing King Bayinnaung (Burma) to retreat 1565 leaving Lan Xang the only remaining independent Tai kingdom.
● As King of Lanna: Aka Chaiyachettha/ Chaiyaset(thathirath)/ Jayajestha, he was crowned King of Lanna after the death of his grandfather, King Ketklao, who died without a male heir. His daughter Princess Yotkamtip was Settathirath's mother, which made Settathirath heir to the throne of Chiang Mai. After Chaiyasettha assumed rule of Chiang Mai, his father, King Phothisarath (of Lan Xang) died in Luang Phrabang. Concerned that he might be prevented from returning to Chiang Mai, he took the Emerald Buddha with him to Luang Phrabang 1547. The nobles of Lanna felt that Chaiyasettha had stayed away too long, and sought another descendant of the Mangrai dynasty to take the throne; a distant relative, a Shan Prince known as Mae ku/ Mekuti. However, the Burmese took Chiang Saen, north-east of Chieng Mai, and attacked down the Mekong. After 12 years of moving his capital between Chiang Rai and Luang Prabang, he finally moved to Vientiane in the 1560s.
● As King of Lan Xang: After the death of Photisararath, the nobles of Lan Xang divided, one group supporting Prince Tarua, another Prince Lanchang (whose mother was an Ayudhya princess). Tarua and Lanchang split the Kingdom between them while Settathathirath was in Chiang Mai. He returned to Lan Xang leaving the affairs of Chiang Mai under his grandmother, Princess Chiraprabha. Settathathirath subdued Tarua in Luang Phrabang, and Lanchang was arrested, but pardoned. Setthathirath united Lanna and Lan Xang under his rule. Setthathirath, hearing of the heroic Queen Suryothai of Ayudhya, requested the marriage of her daughter Princess Tepkasatri. 1572, a conspiracy between Lord Phya Nakhon and the abbot of Wat Maximavat, led to the king's murder.
12. Sen Soulintha (Saen Surin) (1571/2, regent) (1572–75, crowned king of Lan Xang) 13. Tha Heua/Tarua (1575–79, son of Photisarath, Burmese vassal)
12. Sen Soulintha (1579–82, reinstated)
14. Nakhon Noi (1582–83, son of Sen Soulintha)
● Interregnum (1583–91) Because Setthathirath left a toddler prince, Noi Hno Muang Keo Koumane, the child's grandfather, Saensurin (or Sene Soulintha), declared himself king. This began a period of turbulence, with different kings ruling for short periods, which ended with conquest by the Burmese under King Bayinnaung in 1574, and the prince taken to Burma.
15. Nokeo Koumane 1591–1598 (son of Setthathirath). For 9 years Lan Xang had no king and Burma effectively ruled Laos for 18 years. Prince Noi Hno Muang Keo Koumane (Nokeo Koumane) was recognised as rightful King by the people of Laos. 1590 he was released from captivity in Burma by King Nanda Bayin, and returned to Vientiane where he was crowned 1591 and declared his independence from Burma 1593.
16. Voravongsa/ Thammikarath 1598–1622 nephew of Setthathirath
17. Oupagnouvarath 1622/3 son of Voravongsa
18. Photisarath II 1623–27 son or grandson of Sen Soulintha, not of royal descent
19. Mon Keo/ Mongkeo 1627 son of Voravongsa
20. Tone Kham 1627–33 son of Voravongsa
21. Vichai 1633–37 son of Voravongsa
22. Sourig(y)na Vongsa 1637-1694 son of Tone Kham. Second Golden Age of art and architecture. The new legal codes applied to the nobility and peasantry equally (when the crown prince committed adultery Vongsa ordered his death). When Vongsa died 1694, he left two young grandsons (Princes Kingkitsarat and Inthasom) and two daughters (Princesses Kumar and Sumangala) with claims to the throne. A senior minister, Tian Thala briefly usurped the throne (6 months) 1694/5. Nan Tharat (1699) briefly took Vientiane. The king’s nephew Prince Sai Ong Hue claimed the throne and Vongsa’s grandsons fled into exile in the Sipsong Panna and Princess Sumangala to Champassak. In 1705, Prince Kingkitsarat took a small force from Sipsong Panna to Luang Prabang. Sai Ong Hue’s brother, the governor of Luang Prabang, fled and Kingkitsarat was made crowned as rival king Ong Lo 1694-98. In 1707 Lan Xang was divided and the kingdoms of Luang Prabang and Vientiane emerged. Suriya Vongsa had only been on the throne three years when there arrived in Viang Chan the first European, Gerrit van Wuysthoff of the Dutch East India Company, who wanted to open a Mekong trade route. He was entertained in the Lao capital. A year later the Jesuit missionary, Leria, stayed in Viang Chan for five years. He liked the Lao people and left a wonderful description of the palace. Four years later a French expedition sent to explore and map the Mekong River arrived in Luang Prabang, then the largest settlement upstream from Phnom Penh. 1880s the town became caught up in a struggle that pitted Siamese, French and roving bands of Chinese brigands (Haw) against each other. 1887 Luang Prabang was looted and burned by a mixed force of Upland Tai and Haw. Only Wat Xieng Thong was spared. The king escaped and with him a French explorer, Auguste Pavie, who offered him the protection of France.
23. Setthathirath II (Sai Ong Hue) 1700–07 (nephew of Souligna Vongsa whose father was exiled to Vietnam)

Posted by PetersF 17:40 Archived in Laos Tagged temples market buddhism laos prabang luang lao Comments (0)

Luang Prabang - Markets and Wats

Luang Prabang markets and wats 12th August

We woke up at normal time and strolled past the pool to breakfast on the patio= the usual fare of fruit, cooked eggs, Asian food and French breakfast. After breakfast we made sure we had appropriate clothes (sleeved shirts, trousers, skirt) and met the guide in reception. We drove down Bounkhong and right to join the main road in Luang Prabang- Phothisarath Rd- Chao Fa Ngum- Sisavangvong Road.
Luang Prabang is on a long isthmus almost surrounded by the rivers Mekong and Nam Kham. It’s a small town, and easily navigated.
Our first port of call was to Luang Prabang’s Morning Market. This takes place on the left down two pedestrianised roads leading in a loop from Sisavangvong road (the “High street” of LP). Our friendly guide pointed out the huge baskets of dried rice in the entrance and explained that you could buy different varieties of rice (the most common being long grain and sticky). The first part of the market was dried or packaged food including buffalo EVERYTHING (the dried skin to chew- a local delicacy, buffalo sausage, buffalo steak, buffalo fat...). Following this was a breakfast buffet, then the sweet things (such as cakes) followed by eggs (some of which had been coloured a very vibrant neon pink- why, we never discovered). This part of the market was the only bit with non-local wares (mainly from nearby Thailand).
market-luang-prabang_48885966017_o.jpgBamboo- Only new bamboo shoots are edible and the new growth must be harvested immediately after it shoots from the ground (usually at the crack of dawn). Within two days the tender insides become hard and inedible.
The shoots are cut and boiled quickly to stop them hardening, then cut into chunks and kept for many months.
After the dried/ packaged goods, came fresh meat of various animals, some easy to work out, others less so. The fish (sometimes still alive in the basins) were first, all from out of the local rivers. Beside it was kaipen- an edible algae from the Mekong dried into sheets. The most popular, by masses, is yes, you’ve guessed it, buffalo! The large polystyrene boxes filled with a gelatinous substance was congealed ox-blood. This was followed by other meats including giblets (with flies being wafted off), pig’s head (caramelised), chickens, etc. Uncomfortably close to this were a number of fast food breakfast/ brunch outdoor seating areas. The good news was that the food was certainly fresh and cooked to order; the bad news was you could see where it came from (and which flies had walked on it). Still, since all the restaurants and hotels buy from the market and we were not ill at all in Laos I guess it must be OK.
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Around the corner it was the turn of the vegetable and fruit stalls (well, actually spots on the side of the road now as we left the table stalls behind). Now the goods were placed onto rattan bamboo mats and all business was done by the ladies on low plastic stools or crouched down. There were salads, morning glory, aubergines, chilli peppers, cucumbers, ginger roots, beans of all types, onions, brassicas, and a purple flower like one that turned out to be an edible banana flower. Fruit too came in all types- mango, papaya, tamarind, tomatoes, lemons and limes... Then the herbs/ spices like coriander, dill, basil, mint, the ubiquitous lemon grass.
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The last area consisted of the live (at the moment) produce such as basins with prawns in, covered baskets of jumping frogs and toads, coiled baskets filled with snakes, crabs and so on. The final area, before getting back to the main road was for non-edible items, such as bunches of flowers or paper money both for temple offerings. When we arrived at 8 am it was bustling, but by 9 it was almost empty- everyone has gone! Pretty much all the vendors were women who arrive at 4-5am from the highland and lowland villages every day to sell the small surplus they have produced (so almost everything is seasonal). Unless they have walked most women are dropped of by the men who drive them down in their small trucks and then go on to their own jobs- usually casual construction work. At 7 am the monks arrive to collect their alms and this is the busiest time for the market. We left the market heading next door to the Wat Mai Temple and Monastery.

Wat Mai Suwannaphumaham (Si Souvanna Phommaram/ Phoun Ram), or Wat Mai (New Monastery), is one of the largest, most picturesque wats. Located along the popular street of Sisavangvong and adjoining the compound of the National Palace Museum, it is important for both religious and aesthetic beauty. The wat, founded 1796/7 by King Anourout (Anurat 1795-1817), dates mostly from 19th century. Restoration of the wooden sim started 1821/2 during the reign of King Manthatourat (1817-1836), when it was given the name New Monastery.
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The double colonnaded porch in front and a similar, less elaborate, porch in the rear were added at that time. Work on the sim, library and ancillary
building continued until the 1890s. A number of other structures are 20th century. There were major restorations in 1943 and 1962, as well as in
more recent times. The sim is built in traditional Luang Prabang style with added porches on the two sides. The monastery has special significance. It
served as a temple for the royal family and has long been the residence of the Pra Sangkharat, the highest Laotian Buddhist. Because of the Chinese Haw raiders that ravaged the city in 1887 (the wat was spared), Wat Mai became the repository of the city's palladium, the Phra Prabang (now in the Royal Palace Museum). During Pimai, the mid-April Laotian New Year, the Prabang is ceremoniously brought from the museum to a temporary pavilion in front of the sim; for 3 days it is ceremonially washed and the faithful can pray. The abbot of Wat Mai played a role in opening Luang Prabang to the world outside.
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1887 Auguste Pavie arrived in Luang Prabang as the first French vice- consul in Laos. At the time the city was under Siamese control; they tried to isolate Pavie from the king, Oun Kham. The abbot, however, a confidant of the king, served as a conduit for messages between the king and Pavie and invited him to stay at the monastery. French influence grew and by 1893 the French protectorate extended over Laos. The monastery's sim is noteworthy. Its five-tiered roof is magnificent, and is topped by a 3-part Dok So Fa (symbolising the universe) and protective corner nagas.
Its expanse is readily viewed from the adjoining elevated pavement on Thanon Sisavangvong. Its front veranda extends across the width of the nave and protects the gilded bas relief (1960s) on the front facade. The cement reliefs were first covered with black lacquer and then gilded. The entire relief depicts scenes from the Ramayana and the Vessantara-Jakata, the Buddha's penultimate reincarnation, with villages, flora and fauna of Luang Prabang. The large majestic red interior nave with gold stencilling on the columns, beams and walls together with the various gilded Buddha statues and tables at the altar and the large Buddha statue provide evidence of the religious, aesthetic and architectural importance of Wat Mai. The typical dragon boat is housed on the right next to a number of stupa. In the distance we could see the gold of the wat on the top of Mt. Phousi.
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We decided it was hot enough to grab and drink and headed next door to a small cafe to have a Fanta and an hibiscus juice.
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Then we headed back to the Royal Palace area. The building was really impressive, as was the Wat to the right. Over the trees and bushes some huge Golden Birdwing butterflies flew. They looked almost like birds.
We spotted the statue to the last king (left) and the Haw Pha Bang (right). Walking down the gardens between the hedges we arrived in front of the palace where we had to take off our shoes and stow our bags in a (free) locker. The whole palace was shoe-free, so we were glad we’d worn socks! The palace started with the ceremonial rooms, then the private rooms were around the back.

The Royal Palace (Haw Kham) was built in 1904 during the French colonial era for King Sisavang Vong. The site was chosen so visitors could disembark from the river directly to the palace. Crown Prince Savang Vatthana was the last to occupy it. In 1975, the monarchy was overthrown by the communists and the Royal Family taken to re-education camps. The palace was converted into a national museum. On the palace grounds, there are other buildings:
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The Kitchen/Storage The Royal Barge Shelter Conference Hall
Haw Pha Bang
Staff headquarters
There is a lotus pond and two cannons. A statue of King Sisavang Vong stands on the ground. The architecture is a mix of traditional Lao motifs and French Beaux Arts styles, laid out in a double-cruciform shape with the entrance on one side.
Entrance and Hall- Above the entrance is a 3-headed elephant sheltered by the sacred white parasol, symbol of the Lao monarchy. The steps are of Italian marble. There are a variety of royal religious objects on display in the Entrance Hall. This room has a low gilded "throne" designed for the head monk, the Supreme Patriarch of Lao Buddhism- the king was expected to sit lower.
Kings Reception- On the right of the entrance is the King’s reception room, where 3 busts of Lao monarchs are displayed along with two large gilded lacquered Ramayana screens by Thit Tanh. The 1930 murals by Alix de Fautereau depict scenes from traditional Lao lifestyles (Gauguin style). Each wall is intended to be viewed at a different time of day, depending on the windows, to match the time the day depicted, starting with a family’s morning by the riverside, then visiting the Temple or going to market and finishing with the evening activities.
Leaving this room and going into the corridor we saw a row of large ancient Khmu metal drums (similar to the Vietnamese Sa Huyn) and a Lao screen (which matched a Chinese one the opposite end of the building). This corridor led to the impressive deep red and gold throne room. The throne is not as large as western ones, but behind and to the side had huge Japanese coloured, mirrored glass mosaics of Lao people. On the left and right were lovely mosaics of river life and hill life- shiny and beautifully made (especially the river which seems to ripple with silver). There were cases with various regalia in, some made specifically for the last king’s coronation (which never happened). These included swords, fly whisks, etc. In two small annexes were some small Buddha statues under glass domes of silver, gold and precious stones. These had been found in various stupas, hidden inside during the time of the Haw marauders and the later Siamese invasions. Both were happy to destroy religious buildings (except Wat Mai when the Haw used it as their base and the Siamese when the wat used Siamese architecture!). The Throne Room contains the Crown Jewels of Laos.
The next room to the left was once the Queen's reception room. Large Royal portraits of King Savang Vatthana, Queen Khamphoui and Crown Prince Vong Savang, painted by Russian artist Ilya Glazunov in 1967, are hung on the walls.
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In the far rooms are the Royal Family's bedrooms and living quarters. The bedrooms have been preserved as in 1975 when the King abdicated. There is a dining hall and a room that contains Royal seals and medals. There was a children’s room and various display cases showing the royal clothes, beautifully decorated, but simple in design. The family would enter the house from below using ladders. Along all the corridors were a series of paintings depicting episodes from the Vessantara Jataka.
On the left of the Entrance Hall, the secretary's reception room is filled with paintings, silver and china presented to Laos as diplomatic
gifts and grouped by socialist/ capitalist countries.
The Palace Museum, known locally as Haw Kham (Ho Kham) or Golden Hall, was built between 1904 and 1909 as the new official royal residence for the monarchs of Luang Prabang. It replaced the rambling thatch, bamboo, teak and rosewood Lao-style palace on stilts built after the Haw Black Flag marauders destroyed much of the city in 1887. The building was sited adjacent to the left bank of the Mekong, so visitors could be met there and taken directly to the palace. Unlike the former structure that faced the Mekong (and perhaps upriver from the present site), the 20th century structure faces the sacred Mount Phousi.
Built of brick and stucco instead of traditional materials, the building is a blend of Laotian and French Beaux Arts architecture and motifs that sought
to symbolise ties between Luang Prabang and the French colonial government. Primarily designed by the French and built with Vietnamese
workers, the building has two separate cruciform-style sections linked by the large throne room; exhibition galleries surround each of the sections. There have been a number of changes since its original construction; its steeply pitched roof, central Lao-type spire and the breadth of its facade were later additions and modifications. French architects originally planned a European spire over the throne room, but King Sisavangvong insisted that it be Lao-style. There are classical style columns and a number of pediments reflecting European influence, though there is Lao style decoration and brackets between the roof sections and the exterior walls of the building. After the dissolution of the monarchy in 1975, the building was reopened as the National Museum, though the royal palace designations are still generally used.
The front section that formerly contained the official reception rooms is now the main exhibition area. The entry hall, once devoted to religious ceremonies and activities, still reflects the central position Buddhism in the former Lao kingdom and shows the intertwining elements of religion and monarchy. There is the dais of the former supreme patriarch of Lao Buddhism and a variety of Buddha statues. Other front rooms contain gifts from foreign leaders and governments, including some lunar rocks from President Richard Nixon.
The throne room has red walls with intricate glass mosaics dating from the 1950s that celebrate the 2500th anniversary of Buddha entering nirvana. The room also has various royal paraphernalia, including elaborate swords and scabbards, the king’s personal howdah (elephant saddle) and precious Buddha images (including some 15th and 16th century gold and crystal Buddhas from That Makmo, the Watermelon Stupa of Wat Wisunalat).
In the rear section are the five rather simple rooms of the monarch’s private quarters, largely preserved as they were left when the last (uncrowned) monarch, Sisavang Vatthana, occupied the residence. There are the king’s and queen’s bedroom, dining room and library. One now contains an exhibition of Lao music.

Vessantara Jataka (or the Great Birth Sermon) is one of the most popular avadānas (past life tales) of Theravada Buddhism. It tells the story of one of Buddha's past lives, as a compassionate prince, Vessantara, who gives away everything he owns, including his children, displaying the virtue of charity. When Gautama Buddha visited his father's kingdom after he achieved enlightenment, he miraculously appeared in the air. Suddenly, rain clouds gathered and a red rain appeared which he explained had appeared during his last life as King Vessantara. King Vessantara was the son of Sañjaya, king of Sivirattha (Sivi-Rashtra), and was born in the capital city of Jatuttara as a Bodhisattva (enlightened being). His mother was a previous princess who wished to become the mother of a future Buddha (the first awakened being in an era). After she died, she ascended to the Celestial Kingdom and became one of Indra's consorts. When she was due to be reborn as a human Indra gave her wish to become the mother of Bodhisattva, who in his next life would achieve enlightenment. She descended to the human world as a princess and married King Sañjaya. During pregnancy, she wished to see the capital city. She gave birth in an emergency delivery at the bazaar. Therefore, the newborn prince and heir was named Vessantara, which means 'Born in the merchant quarter'. As soon as he opened his eyes, the infant asked for money to give to the poor. On the same day, a female elephant brought her pure white newborn calf to the royal palace. Vessantara grew up a kind person. His parents were delighted and supported his charity. Vessantara married princess Maddi. They had 2 children: Prince Jali and Princess Kanhajina. Sañjaya retired and Vessantara was crowned King.
One day Vessantara gave away the magical white elephant, which brought rain, to Kalinga, a neighbouring country facing a drought. The citizens of Vessantara's kingdom were worried that losing the elephant would lead to drought, so they convinced King Sanjaya to retake the throne and banish his son to Vamka Mountain. They left the city on a four-horse chariot. Along the way Vessantara gave away his horses and four deities appeared as stags to pull the chariot. Then he gave away his chariot, so the family walked on foot through a forest. Jali and Kanhajina saw fruit on high branches, but could not reach it, so the trees bent their branches for them. The family arrived at the kingdom of Ceti. The king, touched by their story, offered his throne, but the prince declined and left for the mountain. The king of Ceta ordered a hunter to patrol the entrance to Vamka Mountain, to prevent anyone from disturbing the family.
Meanwhile Jujaka, a greedy old Brahmin beggar, had a young wife, Amittada, who was beautiful and hard working. During the drought Amittada brought water from the well for her husband. The husbands of the women in the village held her up as a good example. One day, in a fit of jealousy, the village women beat up Amittada, so she refused to go to the well any more and told Jujaka to find her servants instead. Jujaka met the hunter and a rishi guarding the entrance to Vamka Mountain and tricked them. He went into the forest to the prince while his wife Maddi was away. He asked him for the two children, who Vessantara gave him. Jali and Kanha hide in a lotus pond but their father found them and asked if they would help their father. Both agreed and became Jujaka's slaves. Vessantara told Jujaka to take his children to their grandfather, saying, "The king will reward you". Jujaka said that Sunjaya would execute him instead, so he tied both children with vines and dragged them like cattle. The children begged their father to help. Vessantara reached for his weapon in his hut. However, he overcame his anger and let his children be taken. On Maddi's return she was blocked by tigers (gods in disguise). When she didn't see her children, she wandered all night looking for them and collapsed. Vessantara thought she was dead, but when he put her head on his lap he realised she was still breathing. He revived Maddi with water. She rose immediately as they had taken a vow not to touch each other. Vessantara told her what had happened. Fearing that Vessantara would give away Maddi as well, Indra came in disguise and asked for Maddi, who Vessantara gave him. Indra gave Maddi back to Vessantara in trust, for all his acts of benevolence and generosity. A god and goddess felt sympathy for the young prince and princess. They disguised themselves as their parents and made Jujaka take a wrong turn and led him to Sivi Kingdom through the palace gate. King Sanjaya saw the children and ordered royal guards to bring them. He paid Jujaka for his grandchildren. Jujaka became extremely rich, but at his first meal as a rich man, he ate so much he fell dead. Kalinga returned now the white elephant. Jali led his grandfather to his parents and the family was reunited. At this happy moment, all six collapsed. Red rain poured down from Heaven to revive them. Vessantara was crowned king again and Indra blessed Sivi Kingdom with a gem rain. Vessantara allowed people to keep some gems for themselves and the leftover went into the treasury, which he used for charity. Buddha explained that each figure had been reborn as people surrounding him.
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The Vessantara Jataka is celebrated in temples during the Buddhist festival Boun Pha Vet in Laos. It is very popular in rural and urban communities, with dance and drama, parades and processions through the towns. During this festival monks read aloud the Vessantara Jataka. Because of its central role, the Vessantara Jataka is an important part of traditional folklore. Scenes of the Vessantara Jataka are engraved on Angkor Wat murals and many walls of Buddhist temples throughout Southeast Asia. Outside, we collected our shoes and bags and walked around to the right rear to see the two royal carriages, a selection of royal cars (some sad looking white Lincoln continentals with round royal crest) and an amazing huge Banyan tree with aerial roots all over and incense sticks below. We then walked back to the road and down a side alley to Heuanchan Heritage House. This house is a preserved large communal house of the Khmu ethnic group (to which our guide belonged).
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He pointed out the odd numbers of steps in and outside the house. Odd numbers are considered lucky in Laos and even are considered unlucky or even dangerous. This is why many Laotians will have one or three children, but rarely two (though our guide had two girls and planned no more, so it’s probably a dying tradition). He explained that he was a typical product of the Buddhist education system. Children, especially in villages, would be able to attend Buddhist school for free (assuming it was a Buddhist villages) and learn basic literacy, maths and religion. They could then continue further education (again for free) in Thailand’s pagodas if they were willing to be a novice. In Theravada Buddhism there is no reason a man can’t be a novice or even monk for several years and then leave. Several of our guides had done this and now had families.
Amusing monk anecdote: a monk needs breakfast for strength to pray, lunch for strength to work, but no dinner. A layman needs all three because he needs strength in the night for his wife.
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Buddhism and the Monastic life
A male monk, Bhikkhu literally means "beggar" and related to Buddha’s mendicant lifestyle. Full-time students became the community of ordained monks and nuns (the sangha) who wandered from town to city living on alms. This is supposed to encourage the growth of spiritual attributes such as humility and brings awareness of the mutual interdependence of human beings. Theravada monasticism is organised around guidelines found in the Pali Canon (Vinaya Pitaka). A man undergoes ordination as a novice (samanera) and is subject to ten precepts. If the novice continues to full ordination (upasampada) he is subject to a much longer set of rules known as the Patimokkha (Theravada) or Pratimoksha (Mahayana). In Theravada Buddhism ordination (as a nun) for women has not been possible until recently. Monastics take their vows for life but can renounce them and return to non-monastic life and even take the vows again later. A person can take them up to three or seven times in one life, depending on the school of discipline; after that, the sangha should not accept them again. To be ordained as a monk is a way to gain the largest quantity of merit/ karma. Men commonly become monks before they get married. This typically occurs during Pansa, Aug-Oct. In theory, this means every male has the experience of serving as a monk for at least 3 months in his lifetime. This practice is on the decrease however. In contrast to lay people, monks must adhere to 227 rules, called the Pattimoka. They cannot eat after noon, nor touch a female creature. They are not supposed to touch money, although these days it is common to see monks shopping. Items of significance include the sai sin, a sacred string used to channel the power of chanting (and energies from monks), and water made holy by chanting and drips of candle wax. This holy water is used by people to perform the yat nam, the pouring of water on the ground to give merit to the deceased, and the rot nam, when young people sprinkle water on older relations as a sign of respect.
Before the introduction of formal schooling, temples served as main education institutions. Even today, temple boys and young novices often live at the temple (novices are boys who train as monks, but are underage - you must be 20 to be a monk). Besides education, the temple traditionally played the unifying role in the village. Festivals, carnivals and important social events take place there. The temple acts as a social welfare agency, recycling donations by worshippers by giving to the needy in the form of food, clothing, and other goods.
We then took car to drive along Sisavangvong road to Wat Xieng Thong. We entered by the white entrance gate.
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1.Wat Pha Baht Tai 2.Wat That Luang 3.Wat Mahathat 4.Wat Ho Xiang 5.Wat Mai 6.Haw Pha Bang 7.Wat Aham 8.Wat Munna 9.Wat Xieng Thong 10.Wat Wisunalat 11.Wat Manorom 12.Palace 13.Wat Choum Khong 14.Wat PaHuak

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Vat/Wat Xieng Toung/Tong (Sim Ratsavoravihanh/ Volavihan) (Temple of the Golden City or Tree) is the oldest monastery in town and the most beautiful. One entrance is on the road along the Mekong River, the other on the by-lane off the main road on the northern tip of Luang Prabang’s peninsula and is one of the most important Lao monasteries. It is typical of Laotian art and architecture. The buildings have carved gilded wooden doors depicting scenes from Buddha's life. On the ceiling are Dharmachakras - dharma wheels symbolising Buddhist law and the circle of reincarnation. The outer walls of the sim depict Lao legends and the rear gable is decorated with a glass mosaic of the tree of life. The outer walls of the Sanctuary of the Reclining Buddha and Red Chapel are also decorated with beautiful mosaic scenes.
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Wat Xieng Thong is the most historically significant wat in Luang Prabang. The low sweeping double-tiered roof (the front portico forms a third tier) and rich interior/ exterior decoration of its sim are exceptionally fine examples of classic Luang Prabang I style. The other buildings make the monastery complex an architectural gem. Xieng Thong is on an embankment above the Mekong near the juncture with the Nam Khan River. Visitors from Siam would end their journey at Ban Xieng Mene on the right bank and be ferried across to the monastery. This was the entry point and coronation site (until 1975) for the king-designate on the eve of his coronation after he had meditated for three days at Wat Long Khun. An early legend says that two hermits settled here, setting boundary stones near a notable mai thong, or flame-of the-forest tree (depicted on the rear facade) which was also the home of two powerful nagas that lived at the juncture of the two rivers. It was founded 1559/60 by King Setthathilat (Sai Xetthathilat) to commemorate a predecessor Chanthaphanith (8th century AD?), a betel merchant and legendary first king of Luang Prabang. The sim was built at the time, as were the kuti (monks' quarters). A number of gold on black stencils inside the sim recount the story of Chanthaphanith and Jataka stories from Buddhist cosmology. Setthathilat's direct association with the monastery was not long, since he soon moved his capital to Vientiane (Viang Chan). It is impossible to know its original form, since there were numerous changes to the buildings through the centuries. Fortunately it was spared destruction during the Chinese Black Flag marauder invasion in 1887. The leader of the invaders, Deo Van Tri (Kham Oun in Laotian), was in his youth a novice monk at the wat and used it as his HQ during the raiding period. Major projects took place in the 1950s and 1960s, when the funerary carriage house was built. There are over 20 structures on the grounds including shrines, pavilions and residences, in addition to its gardens of
various flowers, ornamental shrubs and trees. Many structures several deserve special attention.
H. City entrance- by way of a small lane from Sakkarine Road. There are newly built and restored traditional-style houses on either side of the lane. The entry is through a formal stupa-crowned entryway of brick and plaster near the golden Carriage House.
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C. Carriage House, Royal Funerary Chariot Hall (Huhng Kiep Mien, Hor Latsalat) is at the east edge of Wat Xieng Thong and right of the city entry from Thanon Sakkarine. It was built in 1962 to house the funeral carriage of King Sisavang Vong (1885-1959), King of Luang Prabang 1904-46 and King of Laos 1946-59. It contains relics and historic Ramayana puppets that belonged to the royal family. It is a relatively tall structure with a double roof in the Xieng Khuang (Luang Prabang III) style. There is a single entry door in the front of the building, though the facade windows are of the same size and shape of the entry door. The framework is reinforced concrete. Uniquely, the facade and exterior sides are covered with sculpted and gilded teakwood panels crafted by local artisan Thit Tanh (Pae Ton). The panels recount the Lao version of the Ramayana, the Phra Lak Pha Lam. Follow Rama, Hanuman, Sita's judgment by fire, Ravana, and Indra as a golden deer. The right tympanum depicts the combat between the vulture king and Ravana.
Ravana's numerous arms hold many different weapons. Carved wooden shutters on the northwest side include depictions of Monkey King Hanuman as well as devas and devis. The 12m high gilded wooden royal carriage sits on a six-wheel truck at the entry door. It also was the creation of Thit Tanh (Pae Ton). Highly ornate, it is dominated by seven nagas with gaping jaws and prominent fangs at its prow and elaborate red canopy supported by gilded and ornate columns. Three ornate gilded sandalwood funerary urns contain the king's father (front), mother (rear), Sisavang Vong (centre).
G. Chapel of the Standing Buddha (Pointed Arch Chapel) is located south of the sim. Initially one might pay little attention as it is sited among more lavish structures. Closer examination reveals wonderful mosaic details, especially in the pediments and the dok so fa pagoda at the centre of the ridgepole. Although it has a single roof, additional lines of decoration and the four cho fa at the top suggest the image of a double roof. The current chapel dates to early 20th century, but could be a restoration from a much earlier period. The interior is dominated by an impressive modern gilded
bronze Buddha, in the Ham Nhat (Pali Abhayamudra) attitude of 'calming family quarrels' with both hands raised and palms facing outward. This is unusual as the attitude more frequently has right hand raised and left arm hanging at the side. The interior walls are red with gilded stencilling of dharma wheels and other images on the walls.
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F. Sim. Of all the structures none is more striking than the sim, as both its exterior and interior are decorated with a rich grandeur. The ornate facade of the portico is an intricate combination of maroon, black and gold gilded wood in graceful swirls of flora, dharma wheels, and stencilled designs. Black lacquered pillars with gold stencilling support the roof of the portico. The stencilling recounts scenes from the Jataka and depiction of the punishment of evildoers. The doorway of the main entry and its surround are elaborate, almost to the inner roof of the portico. Side exterior walls of black lacquer and gold stencilling carry on the theme, while on the back of the sim is the large tree of life in mosaic. The elegant low sweeping roofs
are topped by a 17 element dok so fa, symbolic of royal patronage, reaching toward the heavens. The eight massive interior wooden pillars that form the main support of the roof structure are maroon with delicate gold stencilling. Black or red lacquer walls with gold stencilling are seen throughout the structure: walls, pillars, beams, ceiling, and windows. The large Buddha is set in front of an intricately decorated wall.
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A. Drum Tower. The drum tower (Hor Kong) is a prominent feature of many Buddhist temples. Drum towers serve a variety of purposes, most significant is the call to prayers (early morning and late afternoon); it is also sounded for ceremonials and for other special occasions. The squat structure at Xieng Thong is not a tower in the conventional sense; some call it a chapel.
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There are only 3 steps to the platform that holds the large drum. The structure probably dates from 1961. Set near the northeast corner of the compound, its swooping roof, carved gilded tympanum, stencilled embellishments and carved brackets, is complementary to the other buildings of Xieng Thong.
M. Red Chapel (La Chapelle Rouge, Haw Tai Pha Sai-Nyaat), or Chapel of the Reclining Buddha, is one of the most photogenic buildings. The exterior is covered with a red, fading to pink, stucco inlaid with brightly coloured glass mosaics that illustrate religious activities and everyday Lao life. The mosaics were added in 1957, to commemorate the 2500th anniversary of the Buddha's death and achievement of nirvana. The original date of the chapel is uncertain; its Buddha sculpture dates from the 16th century. It has a 3-layer roof with 18 ceremonial naga brackets supporting the lowest roof, and four delicate cho fa, ornamental finials, at the ends of the upper two layers. The 2m long bronze reclining Buddha is one of the most valuable of Lao Buddhist images. It fashioned in classic Lao style (not Thai or Lanna) and clad in flowing robes. The Buddha is lying on its right side with the right hand supporting the head. The inscription on its base indicates it was crafted in 1569 for King Sai Setthathirat. The figure was taken to Paris in 1931 for the International Colonial Exposition. Upon its return to Laos it was placed in the house of a French official in Vientiane and in 1949 transferred to Wat Phra Keo. The flame unisha (hair knot) was added at Phra Keo. Framed tapestries depicting stupa and Buddha flank the altar. The interior is decorated with gold stencils on red or black walls, and there are numerous small gold Buddhas attached to the walls. They represent the miracle at Savatti, where Buddha radiated fire and water from his body and emitted multiple projections of his form. The charming, primitive-style exterior mosaics describe a variety of scenes of traditional village life: trees, boats, carts, elephants, houses, hunting, fishing, working, playing, as well as ethereal religious scenes set higher on the walls. The mosaics relate the fictional story of Sio (or Siaw) Sawat, a son of a rich merchant, who used his wit and common sense to become an important minister.
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N. Seated Buddha Pavilion. Pavilions serve a variety of purposes in monasteries, from utilitarian places to eat or shelter from sun and rain, to religious reasons to protect the monastery drum, offer shelter to a Buddha statue. The Buddha pavilions of Wat Xieng Thong and Wat Sene are particularly striking. The Pavilion is of modern construction. It harmonises well with the rest of the monastery. Its double- layer roof is supported by 4 square lotus- capped columns with naga brackets. The life-sized seated statue is in the Bhumisparsha (touching earth, or calling earth to witness) mudra.
K. Boat shelter- located in the grounds toward the west side of the river entry. Although just a plain open shed and not historical, the two handcrafted boats it protects symbolise an important part of Lao culture. The boats of Wat Xieng Thong are highly regarded because of the monastery. They are decorated with gold stencilling on black lacquer. Many Laotian wats have such boats that are used for races along the Mekong in April and October. Wats compete with each other as monks and novices build highly decorated boats of bamboo and tissue paper to use in the festival.
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L. The Tripitaka Library (Haw Kawng, Haw Trai, Hor Tai) is a small chapel immediately behind the sim. Historically it served as a storehouse for the Tripitaka, the three baskets of Theravada Buddhist canon of scriptures. Although the building dates from 1828, there were earlier repositories for the sacred texts. In addition to the scriptures, the building houses several gilded Buddha images. The exterior resembles the Red Chapel with red/pink stucco inset with similar brightly glass mosaics relating scenes of local customs and traditions. There is a double-tiered roof with a lower perimeter roof supported by 16 elaborate gilded eave brackets, and an elevated gable roof with gilded wooden relief sculptures under the gables on the east and west sides.
E. River Entry. There are two important formal entries to Wat Xieng Thong, in addition to a non-descript entrance from Sisaleumsak Road on the southwest boundary. These entries provide wonderful vistas. Historically the Mekong River entrance was the most important entry to both wat and city. The broad staircase extends down the long embankment close to the water- depending on the season of the year. The river staircase extends to Souvannakhamphong Road and at that point there are two uniquely shaped and coloured guardian lions. Yet another, much shorter, stairway leads into the wat.
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Golden Pagoda -the story depicted at the bottom of the wall is that of Lion (Tiger) and Pig. The story is a typical Buddhist fable- this time about helping the family & honouring mothers. A tiger sees a sow & her piglet and wants to eat them but the sow persuades the tiger to wait until she’s taught her piglet all about life and she promises to return to be eaten. However, as she prepares to return piglet realises his mum is sacrificing herself for him and goes ahead to offer himself in her place.
Phra Lak Phra Ram is the national epic of the Lao people, adapted from Valmiki's Hindu epic, the Ramayana. The epic has lost the association with Hinduism and is instead considered a Jataka Story (previous lifetime of Buddha). Phra Lak Phra Ram is named after two principal characters, the brothers Phra Lak (Lakshaman) and Phra Ram (Rama). Although the Hindu nature of the Ramayana epic was lost in Laos, it was not completely erased. Indra, Shiva, and Brahma are present. The main characters of the Ramayana remain- Sita, Ravana, Hanuman, etc. Lao culture has always been oral and visual, and oral tales were often codified into elaborate dance-dramas by the royal courts.

Kuti (monks quarters)
After visiting the complex we left out of river entrance, down the steps to the river where we could enjoy the scenes on the mighty Mekong. It was getting quite sticky and hot, so the car picked us up to drive us to lunch at the Coconut Garden. We went to the upper floor balcony and had their vegetarian lunch. http://elephant-restau.com/coconutgarden/homepage.html

MENU LAO VEGETARIEN - 100 000 kip
MOK HET NAM MAC KREUII - ມົ ກເຫັ ດນໍາຫມາກເືຂອ
Papillote de champignons, d’aubergines et d’herbes fraîches cuits à la vapeur; Steamed Mushrooms, Eggplants and Herbs in Banana Leaf
LAAP TAHOU NAM HET - ລາບເຕາຮູ ນໍາເຫດ ົ໊ັ
Salade de Pleurottes, de Tofu et de Soja aux Fines Herbes; Laap Salad Made from Tofu, Oyster Mushrooms, Bean Sprouts and Fresh Herbs
KROUA SEN LONN NAM NOR MAILLE - ຂົ ວເສັ ນລ້ ອນນໍາຫໍນໄມ້
Sauté de vermicelle de riz aux pousses de bambou, aux champignons noirs, aux juliennes de légumes et aux œufs Fried Glass Noodles with Bamboo Shoots, Mushrooms, Mixed Vegetables and Eggs
KENG MAC EEI NAM KADRIC - ແກງຫມາກຶອ ນໍາກະທິ
Soupe au potiron cuite dans un lait de noix de coco Pumpkin soup cooked in coconut milk
JAEW MAC LENN - ແຈ່ ວຫມາກເລັ ນ
Concassée de tomates et de piments grillés; Concassee of Tomato and Grilled Chili KHAO CHAO LU KHAO NIAO - ເຂາຈາວ ຫຼ ເຂາຫນຽວ
Riz gluant ou Riz blanc; Sticky Rice or Steam Rice
TORD MAC KHOUA NAM KHEUI MAC NAT-ທອດຫມາກກ້ ວຍນໍາຂ້ ຽວຫມາກນັ ດ
Beignets de banane croustillants arrosés de sirop d’ananas; Crispy Banana Fritters with Pineapple Syrup
A note on Laap (aka larb, larp, lahb): this Lao mixed minced meat salad is the Laos national dish. Although the word was originally a Lanna (Thai) word meaning mincemeat, now the word is taken to mean good luck. A note on greetings: we learnt very quickly that the Laos say Sa-bai-dee to say hello (with a polite head nod or even a nop (both hands together like a prayer) and loved it when we said it. Not many people outside the cities spoke English anyway (or even Laotian if they were from an ethnic minority). Totally different to Vietnam who were keener on a handshake to say hello and generally spoke some amount of English.
After lunch we were driven back to the hotel for a rest. We had a nice dip in the pool and rest before heading out in the late afternoon. Turning left from the hotel and walking along Manomai road we came to Wat Manorom.
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Wat Manorom (Manolom, Vat Mano) Sattharam is just outside the remnants of the old city walls south of the city and on the site of one of the earliest Khmer Buddhist missions, with a founding date in the reign of Sam Saen Thai (1373-1416), the son of King Fa Ngum, or 1491/2, during the reign of La Saen Thai. It was certainly an important shrine because it housed the Pra Bang (1502-13) before it was moved to Wat Wisunalat. The sim was reconstructed in 1818, but destroyed by Haw marauders in 1887. The present sim, 1972, is the tallest in Luang Prabang. The grounds of an earlier wat, Xieng Kang, are behind the sim. The sim has an important Buddha image as a focal point in the nave. The statue was cast in bronze (1370) in the reign of Sam Saen Thai in Sukhothai-Thai style rather than Khmer. Its form became an inspiration for Lao sculptural art. The 2-ton sitting statue is in the Bhumisparsha Mudra of touching the earth and victory over Mara. The oldest large Buddhist statue in the city, for much of its history it sat outside the sim. It was damaged in 19th century Franco-Thai fighting, when its arms were destroyed.
Walking straight through the wat, we continued on the road towards the double wats of Aham and Vixoun.

Wat Wisunalat (Vixoun, Visounnarath, Wisunarat) was built during the reign of King Wisunarat (Vixoun 1501-20) in 1513 and represents the earliest style, Luang Prabang Style I temple architecture (as were the sims of Wats That Luang and Mai). Wat Wisunalat is Luang Prabang’s oldest operating temple. There are multiple roof structures. The 1st and 2nd roofs extend around the entire perimeter of the structure. Located and adjoining Wat Aham to southeast, it was built on the rice fields of the guardian spirits of the city (devata luang) Pu No and Na No (Phou Nheu and Nha Nheu). The sacred Prabang image was housed in the sim 1513-1707 (when it was taken to Vientiane). The original highly ornate wooden sim is a spectacular example of Lao craftsmanship and one of the more imposing religious structures of old Luang Prabang. It had a double roof with the upper roof raised high above the lower. Twelve pillars support a 30m roof. There were 21 windows with turned wooden balustrades. Much of the sim was destroyed by the Chinese Haw Black Flags marauders 1887. The sim was rebuilt 1896-98 during the reign of King Sakkarin Kamsuk (1894-1903) in a style similar to the old sim with numerous massive wooden beams, window placement and style of the roof, albeit the major part of the structure was brick and plaster in place of wood. The window balustrades attempt to capture the flavour of the older turned wooden balustrades of the original sim. The sim is today a museum of religious art. An important and prominent feature is its unique That Pathoum (Stupa of the Great Lotus) in front northeast side, known popularly as That Makmo/ Watermelon Stupa because of its rounded dome. The dome stylistically reflects Sinhalese influence and is the only stupa of such a shape in Laos. It was originally erected 1514, destroyed by the Haw Black Flag 1887, and reconstructed 1932.
Wat Vixoun, Watermelon stupa, gateway between Vixoun and Aham
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Wat Aham (Monastery of the Opened Heart) lies adjacent to Wat Wisunalat. The date of its founding is not known, though there was a wat there before King Manthatourath (1817-1836) constructed the present Luang Prabang style sim in 1818. The sim is a simple form with porches on the southeast and northwest facades and no external lateral galleries. Stucco tigers guard the front entry steps, and statues of temple guardians Ravana and Hanuman stand at the south and east corners of the front porch. Unlike other Luang Prabang sims, there is no external decoration on the porch walls.
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The sim has a triple layered roof with two segments above the primary roof structure. There are a number of mildewed stupas on the grounds as well as two large Bhodi trees where there is a shrine of the royal spirit protector, Haw Phi Khon. The interior of the sim is bright. Pillars and beams are painted red and gold, while the walls are covered with murals of Buddhist theology and historic events of the city. The site on which Wat Aham stands saw religious conflicts and tensions in the 16th century. Fa Ngum (1353-73), a Lao prince raised at the Khmer court, established a tutelary shrine to worship the guardian spirits of Luang Prabang (devata luang), Pu No and Na No (Phou Nheu and Nha Nheu). Fa Ngum made Theravada Buddhism the state religion. In 1527 King Photthisarat (1520- 48) banned worship of the guardian spirits, destroyed their shrines and erected a
Buddhist monastery on the site. Shortly after the city was beset by disease, drought and crop failure; in the popular mind the destruction of the shrines had brought disaster. King Sai Setthathirat (1548-71) moved the capital to Vientiane in 1563 and the spirit shrine was rebuilt. It was destroyed in the mid-20th century. The spirits of Pu No and Na No had by this time achieved embodiment in two large banyan (bodhi) trees in the monastery grounds. Such trees are identified with the Enlightenment of Buddha. For much of the 19th century, before Wat Mai, Wat Aham served as the residence of the Sangkhalat, or the Supreme Patriarch of Laotian Buddhism. The small structure on the grounds continues to hold ancestral wooden ritualistic masks associated with the guardian spirits. During Bun Pi (Mai Pimay), the Laotian New Year, the masks play an important role in the Dance of the Masks.
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After visiting the wats, we headed towards Nam Khan river and walked along between the riverbank and the back of Mt Phousi. We couldn’t see the river well for all the bars! Along Kingkitsarath road until we got to the back of Mt Phousi when we turned left towards the junction of Sisavangvong and Sakkaline Rds, then left along the main road. We stopped at a nice bakery for a banana chocolate cake and beer- yum at http://luangprabang-bakery-guesthouse.com/menu.html before heading back to the hotel past Dara indoor market (Luang Prabang’s oldest market).
This Lao/Chinese/Vietnamese market is 30 years old. Returning to the hotel, we relaxed by the pool until 5:30pm and our trip to the night market. We had to negotiate the "guess when and where you'd like a pick up” before setting off. We were dropped off by Joma bakery / post office as the main road is closed to traffic at night. First we set off down the pedestrian streets of morning market. It was still foodstuff in general but so different to the morning. The food was mainly cooked and lots of people were eating at makeshift street cafés. It was only 6:40pm and much too early for us so we looped around to the main market. An amazing array of things! We had a look at everything first- aluminium from bombs turned to ornaments & utensils like cutlery, earrings, scarves (silk), purses, bags, cotton skirts & dresses (inc some men wearing them!), blankets, embroidered duvet covers and numerous other things. At the end, by the Palace side our guide suggested we eat in the outdoor balcony of The Blue Lagoon (and said he'd arrange the pick up from there). An inspired choice as both the food and ambiance were great. http://www.blue-lagoon- restaurant.com Blue Lagoon Restaurant, Ban Choumkhong. When we'd finished (buffalo steak and rosti for me, Laap for Steve) we decided to go back to the night market. First Steve bought a library book as a donation, then I got two beautiful embroidered skirts (Hmong), a duvet cover (Hmong as Khmu only do blankets cos live lowlands), and a bag embroidered with their history of crossing the Mekong- embroidering their history is common to the (H)mong.
We headed back to the restaurant for our pick up. On the way back a hotel was pointed out to us. The Villa Santi Hotel was established in 1992 by a Lao businessman, Santi Inthavong, who had married a former Lao princess and they had renovated her former royal mansion.
Local specialities include:
French baguettes and bakery items.
Local watercress, very peppery.
Fried dried seaweed with sesame seeds dipped in a chilli sauce. Buffalo steaks and sausages.
Luang Prabang Khao Soi: spicy clear mince and noodle soup
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Posted by PetersF 19:28 Archived in Laos Tagged temples buddhism laos wat prabang luang lao Comments (0)

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